Coexisting with Furbearers

Coexisting with Local Furbearers. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Coexisting with Local Furbearers. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Book Review: Coexisting with Local Furbearers: Good Practices in Management and Intervention by Gaétan Fournier. Quebec, Canada: Fédération des Trappeurs Gestionnaires du Québec, 2014. 248 pp.

Canada has had a long fur trapping tradition and coexisting with furbearers. With about 1/10th the population of the U.S. and about twice the land area, it’s a veritable trapping paradise. But even Canadians encounter conflicts with wildlife which need to be resolved.
This text is designed to train fur trappers in how to prevent and manage the conflicts caused by fur bearers. The guiding principle behind the book is to reduce the killing of valuable furbearing species outside the trapping season through the use of non-lethal techniques and targeted removals.
The book has 8 chapters: Introduction, managing human/wildlife conflicts, mandatory steps for professional operations, managing nuisance furbearing animals, the dilemma of translocation, repellents and their limitations, disposing of animal remains, and conclusion. , the bulk of the book falls under Chapter 4, managing nuisance furbearing animals. There readers will find detailed information on the biology, non-lethal control methods, lethal control methods, diseases, and other concerns, for beaver, muskrat, river otter, mink, squirrels, weasels, raccoon, skunk, red fox, coyote, wolf, and black bear. Note the information tends to center on damage issues affecting rural, livestock, infrastructure, and non-building settings. If you are looking for instructions on running a business in Columbus, OH, this is not the book for you.

Fournier included several appendices to cover important topics, such as diseases, selective trapping, attractants (i.e. baits/lures), and specialist equipment. Appendices contain important information that may not be expected given their placement in the appendices.
I had the privilege and pleasure to be a technical editor for this publication, so forgive me if I gush a bit about this book. It is smartly illustrated with beautiful color images and superb line drawings. Trappers interested in research-based wildlife control should get a copy of this text. I am confident that readers will improve their understanding of wildlife biology and techniques used to manage their damage.

To obtain a copy, send an e-mail containing your complete address, quantity desired to: ftgq@ftgq.qc.ca. FTGQ will send a PayPal invoice that will inform you about the price of the book and the shipping fees (all in Canadian dollars).

Stephen M. Vantassel, CWCP®

http://wildlifecontrolconsultant.com

Bat Control-Don’t Get Scammed

Bat Control-Don’t Get Scammed

Gap in the slate roof used by bats to enter the structure. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Gap in the slate roof used by bats to enter the structure. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

I am blessed with the opportunity to learn about wildlife control activities around the US, and even some parts of the world. Recently, I learned about a business practice in the wildlife control industry that I found troubling.

These individuals had bat infestations/problems and were told by the pest control operator/wildlife control operator that there was no guarantee that the bat problem would be resolved if the client hired them. Unfortunately, one of the people actually signed a contract explicitly stating this and paid out more than 1,000 dollars. I felt sorry for a customer who paid good money for a service that she/he knew would not necessarily solve the problem and given the phone call I received, clearly didn’t.

Warning

I would strongly suggest that customers avoid signing any contract for control of a bat infestation (i.e. bats are actively living INSIDE the structure) that fails to guarantee eviction of the bats.  While there are a FEW instances where a wildlife control operator or pest control operator can’t guarantee eviction (such as when the structure is so porous the cost to make repairs is prohibitively high, certain kinds of slate/tile roofs and a few others) these situations are EXTREMELY RARE.

Any service technician telling you that the bat colony cannot be eliminated should be able to provide detailed reasons why it cannot be done. If he/she cannot or doesn’t, I suggest contacting another company. Buyer beware. The wildlife control industry is NOT WELL REGULATED. Think carefully before you sign on the dotted line.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

 

 

Coyote Trapping 101

Video review: Coyote Trapping 101: The simple, effective basics with Bob Noonan. 2014 Canaan Maine: Trapper’s Post.

Bob Noonan. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel

Bob Noonan. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel

Bob Noonan, editor and publisher of the Trapper’s Post, brings his years of trapping and teaching experience to the subject of beginning coyote trapping. Noonan’s purpose is straightforward, he wishes to help new trappers cut through the apparent contradictions about coyote trapping and help them with the fundamentals. Bob is uniquely qualified to do this because he is not only an experienced coyote trapper on his own but he is also knowledgeable of the techniques and methods used by other coyote trappers around the US.

The video begins by discussing proper terminology namely Bob wants viewers to understand that the proper term is foothold and not leghold. He demonstrates how the coyote’s foot is best caught in footholds and details the minimum and maximum sizes of traps that should be used. This section of the video is quite informative about different types and sizes of foothold traps. Bob does not delve into the use of snares but focuses his attention on footholds specifically coil springs.

He briefly discusses adjusting traps and quickly moves into discussion of the dirt whole set. Bob demonstrates the setting of the trap using the foothold in carefully describes and demonstrates the importance of track bedding. The majority of the video shows Bob in the field with actual captures accompanied with his beautiful line drawings showing his set locations in relationship to the geography and habitat conditions.

Unlike many trapping videos, Noonan shows how to kill a coyote and actually demonstrates it. While it doesn’t fulfill euthanasia criteria, his method does meet the standard of humane killing. The video concludes with a brief comment by Jerry Levine a former state of Maine wildlife biologist who now consults with the US Sportsmens Alliance. Mr. Levine explains the impact coyotes have on deer populations in the importance that their management has been improving deer herds in the Northeast.

Bob has created a very important video for beginning trappers. He is clear, detailed, and true to his word regarding the fundamentals. He is not dogmatic or arrogant. For the most part the video and audio are clear and easy to understand. On occasion wind and an open door signal do distract from the content but this occurs only for short periods. This video is must viewing for anyone trying to catch their first coyote.

Stephen M. Vantassel, Owns Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

HGTV Magazine

Dear HGTV,

As Program Coordinator for Wildlife Damage Management at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, it is my job to provide research-based information on wildlife damage management to the public. It was with disappointment that I read the advice given by Chip Wade in the

Stephen M. Vantassel rescuing a skunk trapped in a window well.

Stephen M. Vantassel rescuing a skunk trapped in a window well.

column entitled “Talk to a Tool Man” in the section “There’s a skunk in my backyard. Help!”, in the September 2014 issue of your magazine. While I commend him for at least suggesting that people control potential food sources and harborage locations for skunks, I was saddened by the poor information he gave regarding the management of skunks. In fact, some of this information actually encouraged your readers to violate the wildlife laws of the states in which they live.

First, lights will not stop skunks from visiting the yard or taking up residence, if the location is suitable to them. If skunks were as afraid of lights as Mr. Wade suggested, then why is it that so many urban residents in well-lit cities have trouble with them? Second, what evidence does Mr. Wade have that urine from dogs or foxes has a repellent effect on skunks? Mr. Wade must understand that just because something is sold in the store doesn’t mean that it is effective. Talk to any fur trapper, and he will tell you that they catch skunks at sets where fox urine is used on a regular basis.

Perhaps most seriously, is the suggestion that people take a live trap (which I assume he is referring to a cage or box trap as opposed to the other live traps known as footholds and cable restraints), capture a skunk, and then drive it away and dump it somewhere. If Mr. Wade did a little bit of research, he would realize that some states ban the translocation of all wildlife, while others ban the translocation of rabies vector species, such as skunks. States that ban the translocation of skunks include, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Nebraska.

In addition, Mr. Wade has assumed that translocation is somehow humane when in fact there are serious ethical issues regarding its humaneness as well as the concern for the transmission of diseases elsewhere. See http://icwdm.org/ControlMethods/Relocation.aspx for further details.

It is my hope that if Mr. Wade or other authors at your magazine wish to discuss wildlife damage management that they would please contact qualified experts to review the advice they distribute to the public.

Here are some publications that would’ve helped Mr. Wade write a better column.

Removing skunk odor http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=1427

Dealing with skunks http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=1621

Of course he is always free to contact me. Let me know how I could be of service in the future. Let’s work together to help the public employee responsible and legal methods to manage their conflicts of wildlife. Thank you for your time.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

Family Handyman Magazine

Handyman Magazine

Mr. Larson,

It is certainly important that the public understand how to manage mice given how pervasive they are in the US as well as the significance of the damage that they can cause to human health and safety. Certainly there was much in your article (“Tips for Trapping Mice.” Sept 2014 pp.45-7.) that will benefit readers. Having commented on a previous article, where information was less than technically accurate. I was disappointed that the Family Handyman Magazine didn’t reach out to me for my help with this latest article. You may not know but the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management exists to provide research-based information to the public on handling wildlife complaints. Certainly house mice fall within our purview.

Clamshell-style traps positioned properly against the wall. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Clamshell-style traps positioned properly against the wall. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

I wanted to point out a few the areas where there were some mistakes that could negatively impact the success of your readers in regards to managing house mice. First, page 46. You mention the need to look for pathways which is certainly correct. However, the photo those presented shows a very poor way of setting and positioning traps. Mice tend to follow edges so the traps should of been set perpendicular to the wall with narrow and on the bait side touching the wall. The Helter-Skelter way they were positioned raises the chance that a mouse would misfire a trap and become educated to it. In addition, the claim about 8 inches jumping is a little too low. Research suggests that it’s actually higher than that closer to 10 inches see my blog http://wildlifecontrolconsultant.com/2011/05/15/house-mice-mus-musculus-jumping-abilities/ for the reference and discussion.

Second, peanut butter is an excellent bait for mice, but given peanut butter allergies among the public and that diversity is important when trying to eliminate a mouse infestation, the article should a provided some alternatives, including the decision not to bait at all in and use blind sets.

Page 47. You mentioned that use of anticoagulants is not painless. I would certainly agree. But in fact some researchers like Dr. Bobby Corrigan of the leading rodent experts in the world believes that rodenticides, such as anticoagulants are actually more humane than using snap traps. Certainly counter-intuitive, but his insight is important.

Also, your suggestion about glue boards was unfortunate. In fact glue boards are not a very effective way of controlling mice. So while you’re correct in terms of their relative cruelty, you could’ve gotten the same point across by noting that they’re not that effective.

Here are some resources that would’ve helped your readers:

  • Controlling House Mice http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=66
  • Bait Stations for Rodents http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=633
  • Controlling House Mice. The Z mag. http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=1575, and
  • Rodent Proof Construction http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=23

Again, your article does provide important information useful for the public. I concern is for the technical accuracy of the paper so that it meets the standards you have for your other fine articles. Do let me know how the Internet center for wildlife damage management can assist Handyman Magazine and future issues on wildlife control.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

New Age DP Coon Trapping Methods and More! By Leroy Renno

Book review: New Age DP Coon Trapping Methods and More! By Leroy Renno. Mifflintown, PA: Juniata Valley Trapper Supply, 2013. 64 pages. $11.95.

DP Traps. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

DP Traps. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

With the rise in the use of encapsulated-foot traps, also known as dog-proof traps (i.e. DP traps), it was good to see a book discussing the ins and outs of their use. Mr. Renno hails from Pennsylvania and has years of experience with these traps which he shares in this easy to read book.

Mr. Renno begins by a quick review of raccoon behavior. He discusses the raccoon’s intelligence, reproduction, and weather-based activity in order to set the stage for explaining the use of DPs to catch raccoons. Next, Mr. Renno describes the fundamental elements of the DP traps. Though he has only used the Coon Dagger, Duke DP, Sterling Griz, and the Trapmaster (RC Best Modified), readers should know that the information is applicable to all the various types of DPs on the market today. I appreciated Mr. Renno’s candor in explaining that though designed for raccoons, DPs can and do capture other animals. He rightly cautions readers not to get overly confident about the species specificness of these traps, particularly around built up areas as the trapper will likely be in a for an unwanted surprise. I was surprised to see that Renno doesn’t believe that these traps need to have a push-pull trigger. Readers should hear him out before rejecting his comments.

After describing how to prepare your new traps for the line, Renno discusses the three ways he uses to anchor the traps. Having used DPs this season on my own trapline, I would emphasize the importance of making sure your quicklinks are wrenched tight, should you decide to use them at all. In my opinion, split rings are a more reliable choice to secure DPs to cables.

The last section of the book details Renno’s fur handling techniques, which he claims will increase your fur check by 20%. In surprisingly brief terms, Renno takes you through his process from equipment to skinning, to fleshing, to stretching, to damage repair. Images, though black and white, are clear and helpful in illustrating his points.
It was Renno’s description of the various sets used for DP traps that I found the most significant. Sets are critical because the DP has to be properly mounted/placed into the ground in order to provide the resistance necessary for a raccoon to fire the trap. He shows how to make sets in water and frozen ground. Nor does Renno overlook the difficult question of baiting. He discusses his baiting choices as well as methods for protecting your bait from the ubiquitous mice that are available to steal it.
In sum, Mr. Renno has provided trappers with important information on how to incorporate DP traps into your trapline. I think readers will appreciate his humility and brevity with words.

Copies of the book are available for $15.00 ppd from the author. Make checks payable to Juniata Valley Trapper Supply and mail to 251 Maple Lane Mifflintown, PA 17059. Otherwise call 717-463-3624 and pay with a credit card.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

Reducing Bird Strikes To Windows

Reducing Bird Strikes To Windows

Bird strikes against windows are in a significant source of mortality to birds. Recent research in the Wilson Journal of Ornithology (volume 120 issue 3) suggested that window strikes to high-rise commercial buildings actually account for five times more bird mortality than previously estimated. They determined that the presence of food sources and cover them proximity to these commercial buildings increased the likelihood of bird strikes against Windows.

Bird killed by striking a window. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Bird killed by striking a window. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

So to prevent and reduce the likelihood of bird strikes to windows, be sure that trees are far removed from buildings and avoid using fruit bearing trees near structures with large arrays of windows.

Change windows so that they are more opaque and less reflective so that birds don’t see through them nor think that the window is clear sky.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

Rachel Gehringher-Wiar

Dear Lincoln Journal Star,

I am writing in regards to the article on Saturday, July 19, 2014 entitled best critter defense for her garden? An outdoor cat. On page 8 of the neighborhood Extra by Rachel Gehringher-Wiar. Her advice that readers encourage the presence of free ranging cats to resolve wildlife conflicts for garden seriously misinformed the readership. Free ranging cats are indiscriminate killers removing beneficial species along with some undesirable species. While readers may want all wildlife in the backyard dead, the fact is very few animals are causing conflicts with gardens so in effect Rachel’s solution is to kill them all and let God sort them out rather than a targeted solution to the problem. In addition Rachel didn’t inform her readers about the disease issues inherent with free ranging cats, particularly toxoplasmosis as cats use gardens for toilets.

It is unfortunate that Rachel didn’t take advantage of the resources provided by the University of Nebraska Lincoln through the Internet center for wildlife damage management website (ICWDM.org). By encouraging her readers to use cats, readers will lose the benefits provided by shrews and songbirds and other beneficial species such as garter snakes and frogs that perform insect control in gardens and also beautify the landscape.

It is my hope that if Ms. Wiar wishes to provide wildlife damage information to her readership that she consult the source mentioned above. If she has any doubts about the environmental impact free ranging cats have on the environment please letter read “Feral Cats and Their Management, EC1781”available at http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/sendIt/ec1781.pdf. As an author of that university publication, I would be happy to provide her additional details should she desire it.

Sincerely,

Stephen M. Vantassel,

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.

 

Wildlife and Airport Environments

Book review: Wildlife and Airport Environments: Preventing Animal–Aircraft Collisions through Science–Based Management by Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, & Jerrold L. Balant. 2013. Baltimore, MD: The John’s Hopkins University Press. pp. 181 with index.

Wildlife in Airport Environments. 2013. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Wildlife in Airport Environments. 2013. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

US Airways Flight 1549, otherwise known as The Miracle on the Hudson, reacquainted most Americans with the threats posed by birds and other wildlife to aircraft. While that flight received great attention, the fact is wildlife threats to aircraft have been existence since flight was first discovered. Wildlife and Airport Environments summarizes the state of knowledge regarding principles for reducing the threats posed by wildlife to aircraft. The text is very technical and takes a modeling approach to the topic. The goal of the authors is to help readers understand the complexities involved in managing wildlife. The authors carefully and repeatedly remind readers that lethal control alone is not sufficient or necessary to resolve every wildlife threat to aircraft. However the authors also tell readers that nonlethal techniques, or what they refer to as indirect methods, cannot resolve every wildlife threat to aircraft either.

The book contains 15 chapters organized into three parts. Part 1: Wildlife Management Techniques, discusses bird and wildlife behavior in the hopes of better understanding how visual repellents can be effective. Tactile, auditory, and chemical repellents are investigated also. The section is rounded out with chapters covering excluding mammals, use of translocation, and population management to reduce aircraft wildlife strikes.
Part 2: Managing Resources, reviews how habitat modification can both reduce and increase wildlife aircraft conflicts. The authors show how balancing environmental and airstrike issues require difficult choices, where the best choice often is the lesser of two evils. Part 3: Wildlife Monitoring, investigates rationale and methods for determining animal numbers and threats so that data is scientifically rigorous enough to withstand legal analysis. Monitoring also is critical to show officials whether management techniques are working and to identify new threats.

The book is very technical and its modeling approach is quite different than most wildlife control operators would be familiar with. The chapters are often descriptive and discussion-based rather than prescriptive. Readers will be exposed to a wide range of terms and concepts in biology and wildlife management that, while not immediately useful for their businesses, can help guide decisions as well as understanding scientific literature. The book is most suited for researchers and instructors looking to engage the literature or educate students regarding the complexities of management of wildlife in highly critical situations, such as airports.

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Goose Academy Middleton, NY June 2014

Goose Academy

Carla Wagner of Wild Goose Chase instructs the class about use of kayaks. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

Carla Wagner of Wild Goose Chase instructs the class about use of kayaks. Photo by Stephen M. Vantassel.

The Goose Academy is a two-day training on the management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) offered by the National Wildlife Control Operators Association (NWCOA).  I have the pleasure of being part of the training team under the leadership of Master NWCOA Instructor, Vikki Rawe.

We just finished a training event in Middleton, NY on June 26-7, 2014. It was two-days of presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on control. We covered, marketing, pyrotechnics, use of dogs, lasers, boats, goose biology, laws, and round ups.

If you are interested in being notified about NWCOA trainings, subscribe to this blog or contact NWCOA at GoNWCOA@gmail.com

About the Author

Stephen M. Vantassel is a Certified Wildlife Control Operator (CWCP®) who helps individuals, businesses, and agencies resolve wildlife damage issues through training, writing, expert witness, and research. His latest books are the Wildlife Damage Inspection Handbook, 3rd edition and The Practical Guide to the Control of Feral Cats. He can be contacted at wildlifecontrolconsultant at gmail dot com.
If you would like your publication, video, or product reviewed, please contact the author at the e-mail above.

Copyright

All postings are the property of Stephen M. Vantassel and Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC. Text (not images) may be reprinted in non-profit publications provided that the author and website URL is included. If images wish to be used, explicit and written permission must be obtained from Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC.